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Paffey This thesis aims to investigate the nature of ideologies of language, and specifically to understand what kinds of linguistic, social, political and historical factors impact upon and inform ideologies of standardisation. There are few studies which identify and critique the social actors in Spanish standardisation, and this thesis is a contribution to addressing that absence. Discourses of language unity and community are central, as are themes which form a vision of Spanish on an international scale.
The role of other elite institutions in the panhispanic language policy is also legitimised in press discourse, with important social, cultural and commercial implications for not just Spain, but the entire Spanish-speaking world. With the exception of such quotations, this thesis is entirely my own work; I have "Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating" all main sources of help; where the thesis is based on work done by myself jointly with others, I have made clear exactly what was done by others and what I have contributed myself; parts of this work have been published as: Language Policy, 6, 3- 4, Spain and the Panhispanic Language Policy.
Sociolinguistics, ideology and pedagogy. I am grateful for the teaching assistantship which not only funded this research project, but also kept me actively engaged with the full scope of activities here. Thank you to my fellow PGRs with whom I have shared many enjoyable intellectual and social encounters.
Particular thanks go to Eleanor Quince who has, of late, answered many of my questions about the practicalities of putting this exhausting tome together. Thanks also to Susana for providing me with an invaluable and generous supply of coffee and chocolate, helping me to stay awake at key points in the writing of this thesis.
Clare Mar-Molinero has been nothing short of my inspiration for pursuing postgraduate studies. As my supervisor, Clare not only encouraged me to embark on the PhD in the first place, but subsequently opened every possible door and window of opportunity to help me achieve this.
Alongside Clare, Patrick Stevenson has supported, guided and encouraged me throughout. Thank you both for helping me not just to complete a doctorate, but also to accumulate a wealth of additional academic experiences and to enjoy them all.
The sacrificial love and support of my parents, family and friends throughout my many! However, a series of significant interlinking questions can and, I argue, should be asked of the short text above and the various presuppositions embedded within it.
To what extent does each of these form el mundo de habla hispana? To whom Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating is Spanish economically and culturally valuable? And who are these experts who have decided on its value? The emergence of language standardisation as an ideology and a process was tied to nation-building periods of 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. At the start of the 21st century however, if social, political, and economic ideologies and contexts have changed so drastically since those past centuries, it is important to identify what has changed or remained the same about the events and discourses of standardisation as such an enduring linguistic phenomenon.
Standardisation — as we shall see from the discussion - is a reality, a process which has been repeated in many speech communities on many different language varieties.
There are undoubtedly advantages as well as disadvantages to the prescriptive practices of standardisation,
Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating as Cameron claims: This specific focus is Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating because of the gap in knowledge noted by Del Valle and Gabriel-Stheeman: Del Valle and Gabriel-Stheeman a: As such, the press is a remarkably powerful and widespread vehicle of ideological transmission.
I argue that it is an essential site of investigation because the story of language in its contemporary context is seen in practices which are, as Blommaert notes, performed by identifiable actors, in very specific ways, and by means of very specific instruments. The concern of this thesis, then, is to understand how the discourse of language authorities in the Spanish press is permeated with ideological framings, presuppositions and expressions of the worldview of discourse producers.
Of course the purpose of this thesis is not restricted to an academic exercise, and it is envisaged that the case study presented in these pages will necessarily trigger greater awareness of powerful social and linguistic processes at work within a number of domains, primarily language academies, schools, the press and wider society. Secondly, educational institutions have, as I shall argue, played an indispensable role in the construction, maintenance and progress of nation-states throughout the past few centuries, and continue to do so in the contemporary world.
However, only through recognising the ideological nature of language attitudes can those within the education system — be they students, educators or policy- makers — come to an awareness of how dominant ideological discourses are enshrined in education curricula, textbooks and other educational materials which often drown out competing discourses.
Acceptance Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating contestation of hegemonic ideologies should take place on the basis of a more informed understanding of how they work, and to this end, the present thesis seeks to describe how prominent conceptualisations of the "Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating" language arrive at a position of hegemony. What is important here is that readers should be better informed as to how the principle arguments and textual features of press articles are structured, and consequently better equipped to discern how these arguments serve to naturalise the ideology of Spanish language standardisation, and spread this vision of language through the everyday press.
What are the ideological and political factors which impact upon and inform: The analytical framework I will be using to consider data from the Spanish press is based on Critical Discourse Analysis, and this approach requires a number of more focused questions to be asked of the data texts.
Under the second research question, I add the following sub-questions: How is Spanish defined and referred to linguistically? How are the speakers of Spanish defined and referred to linguistically? Who controls and influences the standards for spoken and written Spanish? What discursive strategies are employed by the RAE through the press to frame ideological debates about Spanish in the world? How does the RAE react to the various norms of pluricentric Spanish?
In order to answer these questions, I begin in Chapter 1 with a synthesis of the main arguments and definitions regarding language ideology.
I discuss how definitions of language ideology are constructed on the basis of the dialectical relationship between linguistic, socio-political and historical factors. I also show how language ideologies are not merely attitudes or mental perceptions, but they emerge from — and equally, transform — the particular real-world situations in which they arise.
Chapter 2 builds on the framework of language ideology by concentrating on the ideology of standardisation, and situating the emergence of this specific ideology in its socio-historical context.
I also begin to identify the mechanisms and agents of standard language ideology, pointing to their discourses and Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating as key sites in which implicit representations of their ideology can be located.
Chapter 3 outlines the methodological and analytical approach I intend to follow in order to examine discursive representations of standardisation ideology in the press. After defining and discussing Critical Discourse Analysis CDAand problematising the notion of discourse which is so central to it, I make the link between CDA and language ideologies and demonstrate the appropriateness of my chosen methodology. Critical analysis of the data in this chapter reveals the linguistic strategies employed by language ideological agents in press discourse, and how these strategies contribute to the achievement of social, political and psychological aims.
Chapter 6 will discuss the role and authority of the RAE as this is established in the press. I consider how this authority is Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating in order to discursively legitimise and perpetuate ongoing standardisation practices, which are also undergoing significant changes. In Chapter 7, my attention turns to the Spanish language in the world as I consider how the RAE frames discussions of the language — its shape, value and frailties — in relation to the global context.
The question of language authorities and their objectives in collaborative practices and policies are discussed throughout. Chapter 8, the concluding chapter, is where I draw together the various strands of the preceding discussion and outline the findings of the data analysis in order to offer answers to my research questions.
I draw the thesis to a close with some reflections on the significance and limitations of this study and some indication of potential new avenues of research that might follow this one. The discussion will draw on the seminal works in this relatively new field of research in order to firstly consider the various contributions that have been made. I will, in addition, comment on the usefulness of these Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating not only in a general discussion, but also with my more limited focus on language standardisation debates in mind.
I begin by looking at how scholars have sought to define and conceptualise the general concept of ideology. I then consider how definitions of language ideology in particular are constructed on the basis of dialectical relationships between linguistic, socio-political and historical factors. The importance of context in understanding language ideologies is the topic of my next section, in which I discuss scholarly views on the siting of language ideology.
After this, I consider the question of who controls the establishment, development and diffusion of language ideologies. And in closing, I share some brief reflections on the myth of academic neutrality and the ideological stance inherent in research. Throughout the chapter, it is my intention to synthesise principal scholarship in order to construct an understanding of language ideological issues which will then serve to frame the remaining theoretical discussion and later empirical work of this project.
Thoughts, desires, instructions and beliefs are just some of the notions we express using language, be it written or spoken. It follows that language is perceived as an important identity marker, identifying an individual as part of the nation and identifying one particular nation as different from all others for further discussion of language and national identity, see Mar-Molinero b: The relationship between language and nation is by no means as simple as this brief introduction would suggest.
As is inevitable within any community, a great diversity of opinions and choices emerges, and this is evident through the choices people make about how to use language, and even which language or language variety to use. Indeed, as this chapter will attempt to show, divergent conceptualisations of language ideology reveal a number of different ways in which ideology itself is problematised.
Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating can be summarised as: The great divide in studies of ideology lies between the second and third conceptual foci,
Las voces del infierno son reales yahoo dating neutral and negative values of the term.
It seems that in the arguments of Foucault and Bex, subaltern discourse is excluded from classification as ideology per se, and by inference remains unorganised, incoherent and unarticulated. This particular conclusion, I would suggest, is untenable given my earlier observation that communities are formed partly through common practice, and that through variation within practice, divergent ideologies are formed.
I align myself more with Blommaert who writes: It is not always the State that is the main actor, and neither are all attempts at hegemony aimed at maximizing malevolent control over the polity. In a similar vein, the hegemony of one ideology does not necessarily imply total consensus or total homogeneity.
Much of this framework comes from the work of Antonio Gramscian Italian Marxist who laid the foundations of our understanding about the role of institutions in securing ideological hegemony in society. What I wish to highlight here is that it is possible to conceive of two categories of ideology: The tension of where ideology is sited is, as Woolard observes, a recurring theme of much academic analysis.
One potential source of confusion worth clarifying at the outset is our key term and its alternatives. While this is acknowledged here, on reflection I do not believe this to be a widespread difference of understanding, and certainly does not warrant a distinction in my synonymous usage of the terms.
Should any particular nuances occur, these will be signalled explicitly. For a brief overview of how other scholars have interpreted the differences in terminology, see Woolard Woolard begins her analysis of ideology by explaining that: Del Valle and Gabriel-Stheeman write: We consider a language ideology to include a vision of the linguistic configuration of a specific community, as well as the reasoning that first, produces that vision, and second, justifies its value.
Del Valle and Gabriel-Stheeman c: Furthermore, as Del Valle and Gabriel-Stheeman stress, the presence of variety within and between languages leads to justification of an ideology, achieved by judgements on the relationship between these various communicative systems.